Butter. Oh yum, butter. Butter on corn, butter on scones, green beans in brown butter, buttercream icing, herb butter… Oh, butter, no other fat is quite like you, and we love you for it.
But let’s start at the beginning. Cow’s milk is separated into milk and cream. Butter is made from agitating (churning) this cream until the fat globules stick together and separate from a thin liquid called buttermilk. In the US, commercial butter must be at least 80% fat. The rest is generally water, milk solids and salt.
Basic butter quality is determined by freshness, fat content (higher fat means a richer product) and salt levels. Salting both flavors and preserves butter, helping it to last up to several months longer than unsalted butter. The longer shelf life of salted butter is both a blessing and a curse. Added salt means your butter in the fridge or on the counter stays fresh longer, but also means the store can sell you older butter, and the butter manufacturer can use older cream to make the butter.
In general, quality flaws and age can’t be “hidden” in unsalted butter. Plus, when you use butter as an ingredient, the salt level in the butter can change the flavor of your finished good. This is something bakers, in particular, think about. For these reasons, the standard advice is to go with unsalted. You won’t get an argument from me, but I but, to be frank, I like salt and I usually buy salted butter.
Grassfed Butter vs. Organic Butter
I compared two butters. In all photos, (A) on the left is Kerrygold, a rather well distributed grass fed butter from Ireland. (B) on the right is the Costco Kirkland Signature Brand Organic Butter I normally buy.
The Kerrygold at Costco was $6.99 for 3, 8-ounce bars, or $4.66 per pound. The KS organic was $7.99 for 2 pounds, or $3.99 per pound.
I know some people have a problem with Kerrygold (hello, environmental impact of butter from Ireland!) and I’m sure it is not as delicious as the cultured butter some of you make from raw milk you get from a farm 14 minutes away, but it’s commercially available for a moderate price more or less nationally, so it’s good for this taste test.
The Taste Off
So, which delicious slab of saturated fat was more delicious? The grass fed butter was noticeably darker and more deeply yellow than the conventional butter. The photo below doesn’t actually capture how different the color was in person. Striking difference.
I asked my husband and daughter to weigh in with opinions on which butter they preferred.
My daughter on the appearance: “(A – grassfed butter) is more yellowy, a soft yellow. (B – organic butter) is more white and plain. It looks harder.” (Note both butters were at the same cool room temperature.)
Neither was told which butter they were tasting when they gave eyes-closed feedback.
Comments about (A) – The Grassfed Butter
- “Hell of a lot more going on.”
- “Full and creamy, nicely salty.”
- “It tastes like it lasts a lot longer in your mouth, like after you swallow it you can still taste that there is butter there.”
- “Melts like butter. Soft.”
- “Really good.”
Comments about (B) – The Organic Butter
- “Smooth, slightly sweet.”
- “Tastes…like butter.”
- “Really salty but the flavor doesn’t last very long.”
- “It’s more lubricating than flavorful.”
- “Feels hard but melted quickly.”
My daughter concluded, “I would rather have less salty (A) for longer than super salty (B) for a short period of time.” Both definitively preferred the flavor of the grassfed butter, praising a more complex and longer lasting flavor. In contrast the organic butter seemed overly salty and simple in flavor profile.
Clear Winner: Grass-fed
Why Organic? Why Grass Fed?
Why buy fancy-pants butter in the first place? Most people who seek out organic dairy do so because they believe it to be healthier, both for the planet and for the end-consumer. I’d guess that everyone who seeks out grassfed dairy thinks they are buying a healthier product.
But the specific “better” reasons for these two specialty butters tend to have a slightly different focus. Organic dairy is thought to be less contaminated by pollutants and toxins, whereas grassfed dairy is primarily praised for a better micro-nutrient profile, including much higher levels of CLA, better Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acid ratios and dramatically higher levels of Vitamin A and E.
Now, I happen to agree with the grassfed proponents on the nutrition stuff, and go out of my way to buy grassfed beef and, slightly less consistently, grassfed milk.
Let’s talk contamination. Pesticides, herbicides and toxins tend to build up over time in the fat, including in the dairy fat of animals. (More on this later.) It is a reasonable assumption that animals fed foods less tainted by these pesticides, herbicides and toxins would make foods, including milk and dairy products, less tainted by them.
Most large scale dairy operations practice some degree of confinement feeding, where corn and soy based feed are brought to the cows, instead of sending the cows out to eat grasses. This is true even for large organic dairies, with the major difference being that the corn and soy feed is (supposed to be) certified organic.
My sister, a professional animal scientist specializing in dairy breeding, once described to me the facilities at a major (major) organic dairy she toured. The cows walked around on bare dirt and were fed grain from troughs. The only thing that distinguished this operation from any other industrial dairy was the organic certification of the pesticides sprayed on the feed grains that were eventually given to the cows. My sister was not impressed.
Be that as it may, the theory is that, because of reduced exposure to pesticides, herbicides and other toxins on the feed, organic dairy is less contaminated than conventional dairy.
Grassfed dairy cows, like grassfed beef cows, graze only on pasture and dried forage and are therefore in theory are not getting any added toxic chemicals in their diet. But in practice, as you probably guessed, it’s more complicated.
Will Your Butter Kill You? The Giant Toxic Dairy Fat Issue
Unless you are opposed to butter on ethical (animal product) or fat-avoidance (fat! fat! fat!) grounds, there doesn’t seem to be a whole lot not to love about this substance. It’s delicious. It has great mouthfeel. It carries other flavors beautifully.
But there is one little thing that takes the shine off butter, and it’s called bioaccumulation. It turns out that animals tend to store many of the various chemical environmental toxins they are exposed to, like dioxins and nasty pesticides, in their fat. Fat is like the body’s savings account for building up a nice stash of terrible toxins.
In lactating mammals (including dairy cows and nursing moms) these chemicals are stored in the milk fat, too, and are in turn absorbed by whomever consumes that milkfat, be they calf, infant, or Starbucks Venti Whole Milk Latte lover. (Infants, our littlest, most vulnerable people, have some of the highest levels of toxic burden shoved upon them because of this milk fat toxin issue.)
Since butter is mostly fat, it is one of the most concentrated food sources of these bioaccumulative toxins. According to the Environmental Protection Agency’s Evaluation to Measure Persistant Bioaccumulative Toxic Pollutants in Cow Milk (link goes to a PDF):
The US EPA estimates that approximately 35% of an adult’s daily intake of dioxins is derived from dairy products. The percentage for children is even higher. Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs), including dioxins, bioaccumulate through the food chain and ultimately result in low-level contamination in most animal fats. It is important to understand the PBT levels in milk, as milk fat may be one of the highest dietary sources of PBT exposure. Analysis of milk also allows the opportunity to investigate geographic variability, as milk is produced and distributed on a regional scale.
So, to summarize, dairy cows store many icky chemical pollutants in their fat, including their milk fat. Dairy items highest in fat, including cheese, ice cream, cream and, alas, butter, are the most likely to contain concentrations of those icky chemical pollutants, and whenever we eat these goodies, the toxins go right into us.
And these bioaccumulated toxins? They are all really quite nasty. You would do well to avoid them as much as possible.
So, does buying organic or grass-fed butter lower your exposure? I wish I could say here that grass-fed dairy is inherently safer from a toxin accumulation stand-point – because I sure believe grass fed milk and butter are better from a micro-nutrient level – but the evidence I found actually suggests the opposite.
In the case of dioxin exposure in particular, animals that graze on contaminated soils and ingest that soil show the highest level of dioxin accumulation. The more contaminated silage or forage and soil they ingest, the more contaminated they become.
Grain finished ruminants, as distasteful as I find it to admit, may actually show lower dioxin levels because they spend less time eating contaminated grass.
According to the USDA report, Dioxins in the Foodchain (Link to PDF):
For terrestrial animals, the intake of vegetation or roughages is considered the most important dioxin exposure factor (Fries 1995a). Feeds derived from seeds contain lower concentrations of dioxins, since the seed is not directly exposed to the air. Ruminants therefore are more vulnerable to dioxin exposure than poultry and swine, as their feed source is predominantly roughage based…Finishing cattle in feedlots is thought to significantly reduce concentrations of dioxins in beef. This is hypothesized to be due to the feeding of a predominantly grain based diet for several months before slaughter (Lorber, et al. 1994).
Again with the summary: grains aren’t as contaminated because they aren’t in contact with the soil. Grass is. Therefore grain-fed cows may be less contaminated by dioxins than grass fed cows.
Oh, the humanity! Are you freaking kidding me? Is nothing sacred?
But, before you decide that you really can’t trust anything anymore and that even happy-hippie organic and grassfed foods are out to get you, know that sewage sludge, which contains all kinds of nasty bioaccumulative and heavy metal contaminants, is not allowed in USDA certified organic food production. So that’s something at least.
And in the case of Kerrygold butter in particular, we have the advantage of pretty good information about the level of dioxins occurring in milk, thanks to annual reports from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency which detail just this issue. And I’m no expert, but it appears that contaminants of Irish milk are very low.
This chart shows dioxin levels in Irish cow’s milk compared with the EU limit value (the red line at the top of the chart). According to the report, Ireland compares favorably with other European countries, and the report says that exposure of Ireland’s citizens to dioxins is low.
From this I tentatively conclue that dairy products which are made with Irish cow’s milk, including Kerrygold butter, are probably very low risk from a bioaccumulative toxicity perspective. This, it would seem, is the best of both worlds: low toxin levels in the butterfat and the superior micro nutrient profile of grass fed dairy .
People eating a lot of grass fed butter (I’m looking at you, Mark’s Daily Apple guy) would probably be wise to investigate any known dioxin or other long-term contaminent issues in the area where the cows from which their butter is made graze in order to reduce their own bioaccumulation buildup.
What’s the takeaway from all this? Probably that you should consider moderating your consumption of dairy, particularly delicious high-fat, lovely, tasty dairy like cheese and butter. Sorry, that wasn’t the answer I was hoping for either. In fact, if I had known what I would find when I started this research I would have chosen to remain happily in ignorance, assuming I could eat grass fed butter and organic cheese with impunity.
But I am convinced that the superior flavor and low likelihood of contaminents make the relatively minor price increase between organic and Kerrygold butter worth it for my family. So it looks like I’ll be going grass fed from now.
What is your relationship with butter? Do you buy fancy grass-fed or organic butters?714
cory harris says
Of course any source backed by the FDA, will say that grain, and soy fed cows are less toxin than grass fed cows because of the soil. Imagine that, the dairy industry”s sales dropping 20-30% because more people are switching to grass fed cows. Don’t think our government won’t contaminate the soil here to deter citizens from consuming grass fed products. They’ve already monopolized our water. When I was a kid my dad cleaned a mall right across from Andrews Air Force Base in Campsprings MD. He used too take me to a creek right off of Branch Ave. in Waldorf where there was free natural spring water. We would fill up gallons of water every weekend. It was amazing. Does that free source exist anymore ? What do you think? Let’s keep the grass fed craze underground as long as possible. Once it goes mainstream you can forget about it in this country, don”t get me wrong I love my country but the powers that be are greedy, greedy ,GREEDY.
Barbara Stapleton says
Kerry Gold, which I love, has snow on the ground in winter. INSTEAD of hay (anyone know why?) they feed their cattle GRAINS, some which they admitted, may be GMO in origin. So I think if you buy some whiter Kerry Gold, it may be the winter product. I would not eat it. Just an “FYI”
Merv 48 says
Interesting article; thanks! RE: nutrition, I started eating Kerry Gold because of the reported benefits to bone health. The price you paid for yours is high- I pay only $3.99 for a gold foil bar.
What Organic Valley (Grass Fed Organic butter producer) has to say about the issue: http://organicvalley.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/284
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Jack Cameron says
If organic dairy production is done properly it will be primarily from grass fed cows. “Big Ag” has taken over much of “organic” dairy production and does not come close to providing meaningful access to pasture. A non-profit organization Cornucopia provides a scorecard on how closely dairy producers adhere to the requirements of organic dairy production. On a scale of one to five, Costco (Kirkland) rates one.
In the 1940s cattle and dairy producers discovered that cattle gain weight faster and diary cows give more milk when fed grain high in omega-6 linoleic acid because of impairment of thyroid function (hypothyroidism) which results in reduced energy expenditure and increased weight gain per calorie of food intake. In humans and animals, increased n-6 linoleic acid intake impairs thyroid function, causes insulin resistance that leads to non-alcoholic liver disease and induces obesity. Grain fed cows suffer from liver damage which shortens their lifespan. (I don’t like the idea of getting dairy products from sick cows.)
Grain fed cows produce more than twice as much milk as grass fed cows but live less than half as long. The primary grain fed to dairy cows is soybeans, almost all which is GMO which has unknown consequences.
The price of the Costco butter is cheap compared to what you pay for real organic butter. The cheap price of the Costco butter is a clue that it is not from grass fed cows. Dairy from grain fed cows is cheap because grain fed cows produce more than twice as much milk as grass fed cows.
I buy raw milk butter and cheese from pastured cows raised by Pennsylvania Amish farmers who have lived for generations on the same land so dioxin contamination is not a problem. The dairy products are not “certified” organic but the farmers adhere to all requirements for organic dairy. I buy certified “organic” milk from an Alabama dairy that is top rated (five) by Cornucopia. The local supermarkets sell only “organic” dairy products from Big Ag.
Another problem with grain fed cows is the reduced content of omega-3 fats that results from excessive omega-6 fats in the grain.
Your fortunate to be able to purchase dairy products from the Amish community back in PA. I grew up near Lancaster PA. back in the 70’s. If, I was still living in PA., today: I would definitely make the extra drive into Amish country to buy dairy products. Your comments made me “homesick” for sure. I long for the days; of knowing that most if not all our food on our tables; was healthy + non-contaiminated (( food )). It’s good that more and more people are growing + raising organics. But, we still have a long way to go here in the U.S. as far as educating people about what they are “really” eating. No wonder; American’s are needlessly suffering from so many health issues. We live in a great country; but we deserve better in our food sources. Spraying toxins on crops so they can be outsourced is completely **ridiculous**. It’s a horrible bottom line; that big AG growers are doing on all of us. Our health is at stake; while they keep getting bigger and greedier. I pray that more people stop buying commercial / processed junk foods; and start buying healthy locally grown when possible. We *ALL* deserve better, healthier .. affordable food; without feeling paranoid if it might contain toxins.
I read the OP with great interest, and could only bear a dozen or so comments.
Mine is: some of you need to get off your high horses and get a life! Are we criticizing each other over this? I’m right, you’re wrong?
C’mon ladies, it’s hard enough out there! Let’s support one another in our decisions. Even the easy ones, butter included.
We have recently started using grass fed butter and we are loving it. We have a tough time finding it here in Ontario so we usually ask friends to bring it back from the states for us. Just a quick thought on the grass fed vs organic pros and cons. If we are essentially needing to chose high nutrient content vs low toxin levels, my reasoning would lean towards the availability of nutrients and take the toxins. Thinking from an immune perspective the more nutrient dense our food is the more fuel we have to rid our bodies of these toxins. Obviously not ideal but just my rationalization.
Also I have a question about the “half life” of the diets of dairy cows. I personally would rather try to buy and consume local foods if possible. In Canada it is not likely to be able to pastor feed cows all year round so in the winter months when they are in doors how is their milk effected? Does the quality of their milk decrease the day their diet changes or is there a carry over of good stuff for a while (wishful thinking)? I’m not in the agriculture industry, so I thought I would just see if anyone else had any input or resources to follow up on that. Thanks
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Hi i’m from Ireland. Im afraid you may have fallen for a bit of our blarney folks. Kerrygold do not regulate or guarantee the diet of their cows. They simply say that they are in the fields grazing most of the time, hence they do get to eat some amount of grass/pasture. However without any special regulation or guarantee they are subject only to standard EU agricultural regulations as to what and how much else they are fed. They are fed suppliment, medicated, stocked and milked at necessarily competitive commercial levels. Kerrygold’s (somewhat) grass fed butter, is considered here in Ireland to be no better specified than supermarket standard butter – it has no different guarantee or regulation. Sorry to tell you this. It would be nice if one day their marketing blurb led them to come good and raise the standards of their suppliers, but at present – they do not.
On the other hand in the EU, Organic certification does guarantee at least 60% minimum grass fed diet, and it enforces lower maximum stocking density, restricted fertiliser application and much restricted pesticide use. Maybe the minimum Organic certified grass feed levels should be set higher than this – but they have to be competitive against products who do not even need to arrange and achieve 60% or anything special -who can simply charm a reputation with a sweet advertising angle.
EU Organic certification is designed and enforced to protect and improve farm and food quality. I expect US Organic regulations are similar.
Hi Andrew ~ ( sorry; I’m late to find this web page, thread + your comment posted ). Just, wanted to say *thank you* for your honest comments regarding Kerry Gold Butter + their practices. I assumed; they had set a higher standard as well. I always try to think the best of most food producers; but that’s becoming a game of Russian roulette these days. I used to buy Kerry Gold butter; and love the flavor. I had to stop buying it because the price was high for the last few years here in the U.S. Now, it’s been easier to find in most grocery stores; and the price has dropped somewhat. The more, and more that I research into AG companies, food sources and so – called “orgainic” farmers; makes me wish I could start growing my own vegetables / and raise a couple of chickens. ( lol .. seriously )
Interesting article. You say grain fed cows would contain less chemicals compared to grass fed. But grain comes from grass.
Nice to meet you. 😀
Justin Roy Olson says
This is wrong! I love butter and butter is a superfood just Sally Fallon Morell and the Weston A Price Foundation!
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We eat kerrygold. And we love it with a capital L!
We live in a toxin filled world. And I can’t imagine it without butter!
Thanks for writing this article. Very interesting.
I started consuming a lot more butter and other fats(coconut, olive, and cod liver oil) in 2012. And after one day of doing this my energy levels skyrocketed but I noticed my breathing issues seemed to get worse gradually. With the benefits I was getting I continued to use a lot more fat. However I believe that even though I was told these fats would benefit me like this, I was doing several other things to contribute to the health I was enjoying. I can’t even say I was definitely getting worse or getting better because I woke up feeling like I was improving a few times, but these fats were obviously good in some way. Since I didn’t continue on that same dietary regimen (i.e. including lots of water, fruits, veggies, beans, etc) things started to get worse. But I believe that although there may be toxins in butter causing my problems in addition to other choices I make I think that all I really need is to somehow include garlic, herbs, a few veggies, and water, rest, and exercise and 3 meals a day with an early dinner by 5pm (and it’s interesting eating an early seemed to be a big key) and I’ll be alright because I’ve noticed these things helping me in the past I just need to incorporate them consistently. Unfortunately when you’re sick it can be hard to do the right things. All that to say we’ll have to deal with toxins no matter what probably but there are other things that will definitely combat them.
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Anne McComas says
Organic grass-fed butter is better than non-organic grass-fed. That’s what I got from your article, but only after the second read. This conclusion was somewhat hidden, because you ended your article by saying you were sticking with non-organic grass-fed, because you believed grass-fed Kerrygold from Ireland, even though it is not organic, contained fewer toxins than butter made in the USA. Now we hear from the Irish that this may not be true, and, in fact Kerrygold cows may not be truly grass-fed and may be receiving supplemental feed that is not grass that may contain GMO soybeans and corn. So have you changed your conclusion in light of this possibility? Do you think I am safe buying Organic Valley organic butter?
This was a interesting and insightful read into the land of butter. I have been weighing
the the pros’ and con’s regarding grass fed / organic butter lately. For the last few years; really
concentrating on buying more locally sourced / organic foods whenever possible. Honestly; I
feel the same way you do regarding our food supply here in the U.S. It saddens me everyday
knowing the truth about how animals are being raised for dairy products. It’s enough to make
any smart consumer go running for dear life out of their grocery store. Then, to complicate
matters worse; that consumers are still faced with contaminant issues with organic + grass fed
dairy products. I admit; at times walking into a organic grocery store having that “happy hippy
feeling” with my bag of groceries. Or, buying produce from a local farmer’s market. In all honesty: I
truly wish organic farmers + dairies: would have a honest protocol and standard to their customers.
Our health is at stake; now more than ever. These farmers should let their customers *KNOW* up front
what they are using to feed and treat their cows, goats, chickens. Considering the uber high cost of
buying grass fed / organic products. THIS should be a no-brainer. I’m trying to stay positive while
buying organic foods; but I know deep down; that most growers will only share so much information
with the general public. ( I have witnessed this time and time again; at many farmers markets ). I wish
I had a small plot of land; I would be growing my own garden !! ( whew ~ I wish . . .) ~ Thank you again; for
your insight into this “slippery” butter issue. I love your web site; and looking forward to reading more information from you. All of God’s blessings ~ to you + your family . . .
( oops ) Sorry ~ Erica; that my message got “split up” on your comment page. Didn’t realize my
sentence structure was going to end up “wonky”.
Anne McComas says
Dear Elll — As I understand your question, you want to know if butter helps you lose weight by burning fat without growing muscle. You also want to know whether or not butter from grass fed cows is better than butter from grain fed cows for losing weight.
To answer your first question, I don’t think butter helps you lose weight. The only way to lose weight is to make your body kick out more energy than your intake of food. That’s why exercise helps us lose weight: it helps us expend more energy. The fuels our bodies use to make energy are carbohydrates. If you want to lose weight, reduce your carbohydrates, but not drastically. You still need some carbohydrates to keep all your organs working right and to live in a healthy manner. Butter doesn’t have any carbohydrates in it, but it is high in calories. Reducing calories helps you lose weight. So butter won’t help you lose weight. Butter doesn’t burn fat because it IS fat.
Another way to lose weight is to slow down your body’s process of converting carbohydrates into energy. If your body converts too fast, your blood sugar jumps, your insulin kicks in, and your metabolism slows down, so you feel a fleeting rush and then you feel sleepy. Feeling sleepy is not good for losing weight. So slow down the way your body processes carbohydrate by eating fiber. Whole-grain breakfast cereal with milk is a good way to get fiber. Whole wheat bread is another. Butter has no fiber, so it doesn’t help. In addition to adding fiber, adding a little protein to your carbohydrate also helps reduce the energy spike. Butter has no protein or fiber. So add nuts to your breakfast cereal and have an egg with your whole wheat toast.
When you choose carbohydrates, choose whole, natural foods instead of sugar cookies, pastries, doughnuts, pie, candy and cake. You can get better carbohydrates from carrots, potatoes, apples and other fruit, pasta, and oatmeal. Pasta and oatmeal also provide a little protein. Sugary foods are simple carbohydrates, while carrots, potatoes, and oatmeal are complex carbohydrates. Both give you energy, but the sugary foods give it to you all at once, too much too soon, so you can’t use all the energy and then it gets stored as fat. On the other hand, complex carbohydrates give you energy, but the energy surge is slow and lasts a long time, giving you time to use the energy, which prevents it from getting stored as fat.
To answer your second question, butter from grass-fed cows is better than butter from grain-fed cows and cows that are given non-organic feed. The butter from the grass fed cows contains more vitamins and fewer bad things, like pesticides.
Although butter doesn’t help us lose weight, it does make our food taste good, and it provides some minimal nutrition by way of vitamins. Our bodies need fat, and butter is a better fat than hydrogenated vegetable fat, but there are better sources of fat. These include: olive oil, nuts, and avocados, among other things.
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